Silicone rubber was first synthesized with ferric chloride as catalystin in the United States. In 1945, silicone rubber products came out. In 1948, the silicone rubber reinforced by fumed silica with high specific surface area was successfully developed, which made the performance of silicone rubber jump to the practical stage and laid the foundation of modern silicone rubber production technology. The United States, Russia, Germany, Japan, South Korea and China began to produce silicone rubber from the synthesis of dimethyldichlorosilane.
Silicone rubber refers to the rubber of which the main chain consists of silicon and oxygen atoms alternately, and the silicon atom is usually connected with two organic groups. Ordinary silicone rubber is mainly composed of silicone oxygen links containing methyl and a small amount of vinyl. The introduction of phenyl can improve the high and low temperature resistance of silicone rubber, while the introduction of trifluoropyl and cyano can improve the temperature and oil resistance. Silicone rubber products have good low temperature resistance and can still work at - 55 ℃. It can reach - 73 ℃ after phenyl introduced. The heat resistance of silicone rubber is also outstanding, permitting long time work at 180 ℃. Futhermore, it can still maintain elasticity for several weeks or more when it is slightly higher than 200 ℃, and withstand high temperature above 300 ℃ instantaneously. Silicone rubber has good air permeability, and ranks highest in synthetic polymers in terms of oxygen transmittance. In addition, with the outstanding characteristics of physiological inertia and no coagulation, silicone rubber is widely used in the medical field.
Silicone rubber can be divided into heat vulcanization type (high temperature vulcanized silica gel HTV) and room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber type (RTV), of which room temperature vulcanization type can be divided into polycondensation reaction type and addition reaction type. High temperature silicone rubber is mainly used to manufacture various silicone rubber products, while room temperature silicone rubber as adhesive, potting material or mold. The heat vulcanization type is the largest used type and can be divided into methyl silicone rubber (MQ), methyl vinyl silicone rubber (VMQ, with the largest amount and most product brands), methyl vinyl phenyl silicone rubber (PVMQ, low temperature and radiation resistance), as well as nitrile silicone rubber, fluorosilicone rubber, etc.
In biomedical engineering, polymer materials play a vital role, and silicone rubber is a kind of particularly important medical polymer materials with characteristics of excellent physiological inertia, non-toxic, tasteless, non corrosive, anticoagulant and good compatibility with the body. Silicone rubber products can withstand harsh sterilization conditions. It can be processed into tubes, sheets, films and molded parts as needed, and used as medical devices or artificial organs, etc. Nowadays, special medical grade silicone rubber products are widely applied in the domestic and overseas.
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